PICMET '07 Keynotes









2007 A Service Odyssey!

Using my own experiences in collaborating to develop a research and educational program in the service sector over the last two decades, some of the key issues in the Service Sector will be discussed.  Hopefully, this will highlight some fundamentals of what we have learned and where the field is now poised, especially from the standpoint of the role of technology and its management.  The global economy and the implications of the burgeoning service sector component will also be emphasized along with the growing focus on “Service Innovation” by the academic and industrial community.

Daniel BergDr. Daniel Berg received his B.S. in Chemistry and Physics from the City College of New York (C.C.N.Y.) and his M.S. and Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry from Yale. He was employed by Westinghouse Electric in a variety of technical/managerial positions, including Technical Director. He was dean and provost at Carnegie Mellon University (C.M.U.) as well as provost and president at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI), where he is Institute Professor of Science and Technology. He is director of RPI’s Center for Services Research and Education. He is a Life Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, a Fellow of INFORMS, and a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. He serves as the American Editor of the International Journal of Services Technology and Management. Back up


Design of Innovative Product Service System

Innovation is not an option for today’s industry. For the past decade, globalization and transformation of the flat-world economy has produced vast new challenges for industry. Innovation is not just about new product development; it also refers to the creation of new value-added services to transform better productivity and business performance. As the practice of product design has expanded both in economic and social impact and in technological complexity, so has the demands upon innovative service systems. For example, GE Medical changed its name to GE Healthcare Technologies to expand its business opportunities. Companies such as IBM and Xerox are also transforming to be smart service business leaders. Industry needs to learn how to develop niche expertise with value-added innovation to compete globally.

This presentation introduces the strategies and emerging technologies for product service business innovation. Examples (including iPod, GE Healthcare, John Deere, Otis Elevator, GM OnStar, etc.) will be given to illustrate how to formulate “gaps” between product and customer needs using innovation matrix and the right thinking mechanisms. In addition, an Industry/University Cooperative Research Center Model as well as its operations in an academic environment will be discussed.

Jay Lee PhotoDr. Jay Lee is Ohio Eminent Scholar and L.W. Scott Alter Chair Professor at the University of Cincinnati and is founding director of the National Science Foundation (NSF) Industry/University Cooperative Research Center (I/UCRC) on Intelligent Maintenance Systems (IMS) (www.imscenter.net), which is a multi-campus NSF Center of Excellence between the University of Cincinnati (lead institution), the University of Michigan, and the University of Missouri-Rolla in partnerships with over 35 global companies including P&G, Toyota, GE Aviation, Boeing, AMD, Caterpillar, Siemens, DaimlerChrysler, Festo, Harley-Davidson, Honeywell, ITRI (Taiwan), Komatsu, Omron, Samsung, Toshiba, Bosch, Parker Hannifin, BorgWarner, Spirit Aerosystems, and McKinsey & Company. His current research focuses on smart prognostics technologies for predictive maintenance, self-maintenance systems and innovative service business model studies.

He also serves as honorary professor and visiting professor for a number of institutions, including Cranfield University in the UK, Lulea University of Technology in Sweden, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, University of Manchester, City University of Hong Kong, and Hong Kong PolyU.

Previously, he held a position as Wisconsin Distinguished Professor and Rockwell Automation Professor at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Prior to joining UWM, he served as Director for Product Development and Manufacturing Department at United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), East Hartford, Connecticut, as well as Program Directors for a number of programs at NSF during 1991-1998, including the Engineering Research Centers (ERCs) Program, the Industry/University Cooperative Research Centers (I/UCRCs) Program, and the Division of Design, Manufacture, and Industrial Innovation.

Currently, he serves as advisor and board member to many global organizations, including Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) in Taiwan, Japan Productivity Center (JPC), Academy of Machinery Science & Technology in China, and InnoLab of Shanghai, China. In addition, he serves as editor and associate editor for a number of journals including IEEE Transaction on Industrial Informatics, International Journal on Asset Engineering and Management, International Journal on Service Operations and Informatics, and Tsinghua Science & Technology Journal. He has delivered numerous invited lectures and speeches, including over 120 invited keynote and plenary speeches at major international conferences.

Dr. Lee received the Milwaukee Mayor Technology Award in 2003 and was a recipient of the SME Outstanding Young Manufacturing Engineering Award in 1992. He is also a Fellow of ASME and SME.Back up


Three Eras of Technology Foresight

The talk examines the evolution of Technology Foresight (TF) from its roots in World War II to 1970, then the impact of the information technology era on TF, and finally some possible effects of the follow-on molecular (nano/bio) technology era.  Of particular interest are the insights gained from complexity science, technology mining, computer modeling of complex adaptive systems as well as the generation of scenarios, and the use of multiple perspectives to bridge the gap between modeling and the real world.

Harold LinstoneDr. Harold A. Linstone earned his M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in Mathematics from Columbia University and the University of Southern California, respectively.  He now holds the rank of University Professor Emeritus of Systems Science at Portland State University, Portland, Oregon, USA.  From 1970 to 1977 he served as director of its Systems Science Ph.D. Program.  His 22 years of industrial experience include positions at Hughes Aircraft Company and Lockheed Corporation, where he was Associate Director of Corporate Planning—Systems Analysis.  He has been a visiting professor at the University of Rome, the University of Washington, and Kiel University. In 1993-94 he served as president of the International Society for the Systems Sciences, and in 2003 he won the World Future Society’s Distinguished Service Award.
Dr. Linstone is editor-in-chief of the professional journal Technological Forecasting and Social Change, which he founded in 1969, and which is now in its 38th year.  He is author or co-author of the books The Delphi Method (1975), Futures Research: New Directions (1976), Technological Substitution (1977), Multiple Perspectives for Decision Making (1984), The Unbounded Mind (1993), The Challenge of the 21st Century (1994), and Decision Making for Technology Executives (1999).Back up


Industry-Academia Collaboration for Nanotechnology Research

A possible model and mechanisms for better industry-academia collaboration will be discussed, in which strong interactions between researchers/engineers from industry and from academia will stimulate each other as well as build complimentary relationships, which are critically important.  The nature of nanoscale science and engineering in the nanotechnology era, which is defined as “multi-disciplinary cross fertilization and incubation of new ideas and applications,” will force us to invent a new model of collaborations.

Yoshio NishiDr. Yoshio Nishi is Director of Research of the Stanford Center for Integrated Systems, Director of the Stanford Nanofabrication Facility, and a Research Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering at Stanford University.
He received his B.S. degree in metallurgy from Waseda University in 1962 and his Ph.D. degree in electronics engineering from the University of Tokyo in 1973. In 1962 he joined Toshiba Corporation, where he worked on silicon process research and development. From 1968 to 1969 he was a visiting Research Associate at the Stanford Electronics Laboratories, working on high-field transport in semiconductors and materials characterization of GaAs. In 1969 he returned to Toshiba and supervised the nonvolatile memory R&D activity, working on the development of the world's first MNOS nonvolatile static memories. In 1976 he was responsible for theoretical and experimental studies of short-channel MOSFETs in the MITI VLSI project, as well as management of the SOS technology group at Toshiba, developing the 16bitSOS processor for medical information processing. In 1979 he directed work on VLSI process technology R&D for both memory and logic VLSI, where his team developed the world’s first 1Mbit CMOS DRAM, 256kbit CMOS SRAM and 1M/4Mbit EEPROM, predecessor of Flash memory, which led Toshiba to become the leading manufacturer of DRAM and EEPROM in that era.
In 1986 Dr. Nishi joined HP Labs as Director of the Silicon Process Laboratory, where he led the team to build HP's first converged CMOS technology at 0.8 micron geometry used in HP RISC Processor, PA-RISC chip sets. In 1994 he established and became Director of the ULSI Research Laboratory. Dr. Nishi joined Texas Instruments in 1995 as Vice President and Director of Research and Development for the Semiconductor Group. In 1996, he was appointed Senior VP, responsible for R&D activities for digital signal processing solutions, semiconductor processes and devices, memory, as well as components and materials. His contributions throughout his tenure in industry cover not only leading-edge technology development, but also an R&D model and strategy for consecutive developments of technologies of multiple nodes with co-located R&D and manufacturing with two staggering teams and broad deployment of “precompetitive collaboration and benchmarking,” which is now commonly accepted world-wide.
In 2002 Dr. Nishi joined Stanford University as a faculty member in Electrical Engineering, and, by courtesy, in Material Science and Engineering. His research and teaching interest at Stanford covers nanoelectronic materials and devices such as metal gate/high k/high mobility channel MISFETs, resistance change nonvolatile memory, nanowires and nanotube-based devices with his Ph.D. students.  He serves several companies as either board member or technical advisory board member, and he is also guest professor of several universities such as Tsinghua University and Peking University.  
 Professor Nishi has published over 200 papers in international technical journals and conferences and has co-authored 12 books. He has been awarded more than 50 patents in the U.S. and Japan. He is a Fellow of the IEEE, and he is a member of the Japan Society of Applied Physics; Institute of Electronics, Communication Engineers of Japan; and the Electrochemical Society. He received the IECE Japan Award in 1972, and IR100 awards in 1982 and 1986 for nonvolatile memory productization. In 1995, he received the IEEE Jack A. Morton Award. He is also the 2002 Robert Noyce Medal recipient.Back up


Service Enterprise Engineering:  An Overview

The U.S. economy, along with the rest of the developed world, has increased its economic activity through the dramatic growth of the service sector. Over 80% of the U.S. labor force now works in the service sector, which accounts for 4.2 trillion dollars out of a total of 7.4 trillion dollars of personal expenditures. Research in manufacturing technologies has enabled gains in manufacturing efficiency and productivity, keeping the U.S. manufacturing sector of the economy competitive in a global marketplace. The Service Enterprise Engineering program is engaging the engineering community in basic research to understand the needs, and synthesize new designs, of service enterprises so that the U.S. can continue to be competitive in the sector of the economy and deliver high quality services both for domestic consumption and export.

Dr. Realff will highlight some of the recent research areas that have been the focus of activity in service engineering research and give his perspective on the challenges that are to be faced. He will give his perspective on the challenges of systematizing services and fostering innovation in the service industry.

Note: Any opinion, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this talk are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

Dr Matthew J Realff is an Associate Professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at Georgia Tech, and the David I. L. Wang Faculty Fellow.  He has been at Georgia Tech since 1993, after completing his Ph.D. in chemical engineering at MIT and a visiting scientist position at Imperial College London.  As of September 2005, he is on leave from Georgia Tech at the National Science Foundation as Program Officer within the Division of Manufacturing Innovation responsible for the Service Enterprise Engineering program and cross-cutting activities in Environmental Benign Design and Manufacturing. Back up


Governance of Converging New Technologies Integrated from the Nanoscale

The convergence of nanotechnology, modern biology, the digital revolution and cognitive sciences will bring about tremendous improvements in transformative tools, generate new products and services, enable opportunities to meet and enhance human potential and social achievements, and in time reshape societal relationships.  After an outline of the technological opportunities, the presentation will discuss the progress made in governance of such converging, emerging technologies and suggests possibilities for a global approach.  It is suggested creating a multidisciplinary forum or a consultative coordinating group with members from various countries in order to start establishing a plan for governance of converging, emerging technologies.

The proposed framework for governance of converging technologies calls for four key functions: supporting the transformative impact of the new technologies; advancing responsible development that includes health, safety and ethical concerns; encouraging national and global partnerships; and establishing commitments to long-term planning and investments centered on human development.  Several possibilities for improving the governance of converging technologies in the global self-regulating ecosystem are recommended: using open-source and incentive-based  models, establishing corresponding science and engineering platforms, empowering the stakeholders and promoting partnerships among them, implementing long-term planning that includes international perspectives, and instituting voluntary and science-based measures for risk management.

Mihail C. RocoDr. Mihail C. Roco is the Senior Advisor for Nanotechnology at the National Science Foundation (NSF) and a key architect of the National Nanotechnology Initiative.  Dr. Roco is the founding chair of  the U.S. National Science and Technology Council’s subcommittee on Nanoscale Science, Engineering and Technology (NSET), and  leads  the Nanotechnology Group of the International Risk Governance Council.   He also coordinated the programs on academic liaison with industry (GOALI). Prior to joining the NSF, he was Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Kentucky (1981-1995) and held visiting professorships at the California Institute of Technology (1988-89), Johns Hopkins University (1993-1995), Tohoku University (1989), and Delft University of Technology (1997-98).
Dr. Roco is credited with 13 patents and has contributed over 200 articles and 15 books, including Nanotechnology: Societal Implications - Maximizing Benefits to Humanity (Springer Science, November 2006), significantly advancing the body of literature in the field.   Dr. Roco coordinated the preparation of the U.S. National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) reports on "Nanotechnology Research Directions" (NSTC, 1999) and the "National Nanotechnology Initiative" (NSTC, 2000).  Under his stewardship, the nanotechnology federal investment has increased from about $3 million in 1991 at NSF to $1.3 billion in 2005/2006.   His research included experimental and simulation methods to investigate nanosystems.   Dr. Roco was a researcher in multiphase systems, visualization techniques, computer simulations, and nanoparticles in the 1980s as a professor at the University of Kentucky.  In 1991 he initiated the first federal government program with a focus on nanoscale science and engineering (on Synthesis and Processing of Nanoparticles at NSF in 1991). He formally proposed NNI in a presentation at the White House/OSTP, Committee on Technology, on March 11, 1999.  Since 2002 he prepared a series of four volumes related to development and management of new technologies, beginning with Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance in collaboration with W.S. Bainbridge. 
Dr. Roco is a Correspondent Member of the Swiss Academy of Engineering Sciences, and a Fellow of ASME, of AIChE, and of the Institute of Physics.  Forbes magazine recognized him in 2003 as first among “Nanotechnology’s Power Brokers,” and Scientific American named him one of 2004’s top 50 Technology Leaders.  In 2005, he received the AIChE Forum award “for leadership and service to the national science and engineering community through initiating and bringing to fruition the National Nanotechnology Initiative.”  He is the editor of several journals, including the Journal of Nanoparticle Research. He was honored as recipient of the Carl Duisberg Award in Germany, “Burgers Professorship Award” in the Netherlands and the “University Research Professorship” award in the U.S.  Dr. Roco is a member of several honorary boards and was elected Engineer of the Year by the U.S. Society of Professional Engineers and NSF in 1999 and again in 2004. Back up


IT/BT/NT Convergence Technology and its Business Managerial Considerations

In recent years, a technical level of IT has been heading toward its maturity, and many convergences have taken place among different IT technologies such as computation, communication, consumer & entertainment electronics, and content of digital information & broadcasting. These convergences have formed many new functions for the cell phone, TV, PC, etc. As the technical advancement of BT and NT has recently been making a good inroad, a convergence of IT, BT and NT is on its course to create many unprecedented applications. The well-advanced IT provides a function of input and output interfaces, algorithms and networks, the NT provides new capabilities in a quantum level of material manipulations (bottom up) and nano-electronics (top down), and the BT provides many new understandings of genes and diseases for plants, animals and humans. A combination of IT and NT will provide tools and materials for a much better understanding of BT, and a convergence of these three technologies will definitely provide many possibilities to enrich human lives (e.g., understanding how the human brain works to prevent brain related neural diseases).

Dr. Shin will review the status and progress of these three technologies and their future markets with two examples for the convergence technology: the biochip and the ubiquitous health. Both are examples of convergence technologies that presently are in a process of being incubated by many venture companies and some MNC’s. Dr. Shin will provide some details of the new technology and the associated business possibilities of these two new industries. Assuming that the needed technical and market breakthroughs will be accomplished in time, a market for a combination of both the biochips of micro array genechip and the proteinchip will likely grow to a vicinity of a one hundred billion dollar market in its maturity (from the present half billion dollar market). When a social ecosystem will be in place for ubiquitous connections in the health industry, it will extensively revolutionize the present four trillion dollar health industry, and change human lifestyles extensively. Just as the hardware, software, semiconductors, computers and internet technology of IT have created new wealth and many billionaires, these convergence technologies will undoubtedly produce many new industries and new billionaires as well.

Dr. Shin will address some of the major managerial concerns for the convergence business in terms of disparities between these three technologies, and business executives’ social responsibilities; IT business is applicable to a technology business model, while BT is applicable to a science business model. Since these technical and business progresses will affect all the aspects of human life for a healthier and longer life span, the leaders of the society need to provide proactive measures for the benefit of the society, and to minimize possibilities of wrongful and unethical usage of these new technologies and businesses.

In conclusion, Dr. Shin will provide some recommendations that he sees pertinent for educators, business executives and government officers at this point. However, managerial responsibilities need to be continually updated as this convergence technology and business progress.

Yong-In Shin PhotoDr. Yong-In S. Shin is an Executive Vice President of Samsung Electronics in Korea. He has been in charge of new business development focusing mostly on disruptive technologies and innovations, and has incubated a few new businesses including an IT/BT/NT convergence business and an energy-related business. Prior to joining Samsung Electronics, he was a Senior Manager for Intel Corporation in the USA, where he was in charge of a research project for the PC usage model development, a CRM program for the IT division, and a new circuit technology development of the P4 microprocessor. He was a technical marketing manager for Philips Corporation in the Netherlands, where he managed a technical support program, and developed support processes and methods for European and Asian sales organizations. He also worked for Signetics Company in the USA as an engineering manager.

Dr. Shin has been an invited professor at Seoul National University, an adjunct professor for Portland State University, and Oregon Health & Science University for techno MBA and Ph.D. students. He is an ITPP fellow for Seoul National University, a recipient of the Presidential Award from Hanbat University, an inductee to Omega Rho by Portland State University, a recipient of the Intel Division Award, and a Patent of the Year Award winner from Signetics and Philips. He holds a number of patents and has published many articles for both fields of management and integrated circuit design engineering.

He has a doctorate degree in Economics and Business Administration from Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands; and master’s and bachelor’s degrees in Electrical Engineering from Brigham Young University, USA.Back up


Service Science, Management and Engineering (SSME): A Next Frontier in Education, Innovation and Economic Growth

Service Science, Management, and Engineering (SSME) is a frontier field,  defined as the application of scientific, management, and engineering competencies that one organization (“service provider”) beneficially performs for and with another ("service client or customer") to coproduce value.    Value creating service systems now span the globe.  New business and information services are both output from and input to the growth of the knowledge economy.  Business services unbundle and rebundle knowledge on-demand into offerings ranging from tell me (help desk and call centers), to enable me (e-commerce and application hosting in data centers), to do it for me (outsourcing business processes, information integration, and IT operations), not to mention field service, front stage customer service centers, and back stage service operations centers. 
SSME, also known as “service science,” is the study of the design and evolution of service systems or “value creating systems.”  Service systems are value coproduction configurations of people, technology, value propositions connecting internal and external service systems, and shared information (languages, laws, measures, etc.).  To better understand the design and evolution of service systems – especially measures of service productivity, quality, compliance, innovation, and learning curves - IBM has been collaborating with academic, industry, government, and foundation partners around the world since 2002.
The focus on service systems and interdisciplinary approaches to understanding their design and evolution is of great economic relevance and scientific interest.  First, the economies of most developed countries are dominated by services (70% of the labor, GDP, etc.). China, in its 2006-2011 Five-Year Plan, has made the "transition to a modern service economy" a national priority, and India is well along on this path as well. Second, even traditional manufacturing companies such as GE (70% services revenue) and IBM (50% services revenue) need to add high values services to grow their businesses. Third, information services and business services are two of the fastest growing segments of the service economy. The growth of B2B and B2C web services, service oriented architectures, and self-service systems suggests a strong relationship between SSME and the more established discipline of computer science.
The goal of SSME is to encourage research aimed at solving unique problems of service businesses and society, and to encourage development of courses and programs aimed at producing graduates who are ready to innovate in the service sector, particularly in areas of high skill, high value, IT-enabled, knowledge-intensive business services.

Jim SpohrerDr. Jim Spohrer is the Director of Almaden Services Research, with the mission of creating and deploying service innovations that matter and scale well both internally to transform IBM and externally to transform IBM client capabilities ("double win" service innovations).  Service system innovation is a multidisciplinary endeavor, integrating technology, business model, social-organizational and demand innovations (just think about the ubiquity of credit cards, and what it took to make that service system innovation global; also, too often, people focus on the invention of the light bulb, and forget about the service system innovations required to make that point technology innovation beneficial to so many).

Prior to joining IBM, Dr. Spohrer was at Apple Computer, attaining the role of Distinguished Scientist, Engineer, and Technologist (DEST) for his pioneering work on intelligent multimedia learning systems, next generation authoring tools, on-line learning communities, and augmented reality learning systems. He has published in the areas of speech recognition, artificial intelligence, empirical studies of programmers, next generation learning systems, and service science. He graduated with a Ph.D. in Computer Science from Yale University (specializing in Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science) in 1989 and a B.S. in Physics from MIT in 1978.Back up


"Joint Technology Initiatives in ICT: A New Approach to Foster Research Efforts in Europe"

The European Commission is prepared to spend over € 9 billion in research on information and communications technologies (ICT) in the next seven years. ICT is the largest single research area within Europe's 7th Framework Programme for research and development, accounting for 18% of the total Community budget. The ICT research work programme for 2007-2008 aims to raise European research performance and help keep Europe's ICT sector at the forefront of technology developments and advanced ICT use. The work programme focuses on key areas where Europe has competitive advantages and established strengths: communications, electronics and photonics, and software systems and architecture. It also aims to ensure that ICT research will benefit not only the European economy but also society by improving everyday life in areas such as transport, energy efficiency and healthcare.

The European Technology Platforms active in ICT, through their industry-led Strategic Research Agendas, have contributed significantly to the focus of the new work programme. These platforms aim to speed up innovation, in particular by building consensus around technology development strategies. They are poles for attracting more research investment and help transfer new technologies to the market. Nine ICT European Technology Platforms have already been launched. Two of them will provide the basis of Joint Technology Initiatives, in which, for the first time ever, EU, Member State and industry funds will be pooled in public-private research partnerships to boost European cutting-edge research in areas such as nanoelectronics and embedded systems – both vital areas for competitiveness in many end user industries.

The paper will present recent activities to set up Joint Technology Initiatives in Europe with the aim to structure R&D efforts around focused technology objectives to achieve competitiveness goals.

Rosalie Zobel photoRosalie A. Zobel was born in England. She received a bachelor's degree in physics from Nottingham University, UK, in 1964, and a PhD in radiation physics from London University in 1967.

She started her career in the Information Technology industry in ICL in 1967, and later held positions as a systems engineer in CERN (Centre Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire), Geneva, Switzerland, the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, UK, and the Max-Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching, Germany. At the latter she became operations manager of the first CRAY Supercomputer centre in continental Europe.

In 1981 she moved to the USA and took up a position in the AT&T Headquarters, Basking Ridge, USA. She held positions as senior marketing manager for open systems software both for the USA and international markets, and was responsible from 1983-1986 for the international UNIX business. In 1986 she became senior marketing manager for information technology products in AT&T Japan.

She returned to Europe in 1988 as Deputy Head of Unit of the European Community's ESPRIT Business Systems unit. In 1991 she launched the initiative in Open Microprocessor systems (OMI). From 1995 she was the Head of unit "Business systems, multimedia and microprocessor applications", and EU-coordinator of the G7 Pilot Project "Global Marketplace for SMEs".  From 1999-2002 she was Director of “New Methods of Work and Electronic Commerce”.  From 2003 she is Director of "Components and Systems" in the Information Society and Media Directorate-General of the European Commission. Back up


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